The soldiers, trained for over five months at the army peacekeeping operations centre in Uganda, will join the AMISOM force in Mogadishu.
Part of their forthcoming challenges will be stopping the increasing bombings in the capital Mogadishu by the Al-Shabab militants.
The soldiers will also be engaged in continued offensive operations against the Al-Shabab in other parts of Somalia.
The contingent is commanded by Colonel Silvio Aguma.
An earlier advanced team of soldiers had already arrived in Mogadishu and was received by the Ugandan contingent commander Brigadier Sam Kavuma.
Part of the contingent that is leaving will also be deployed in the Lower Shebelle region and some parts of Banadir, according to the Uganda contingent spokesperson Isaac Oware.
The 1700-member force will replace battle group XIII that has been in Somalia for over two years.